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Showing votes from 2017-10-03 11:30 to 2017-10-06 11:30 |
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#### Scale-dependent bias and bispectrum in neutrino separate universe simulations.- [PDF] - [Article]

##### Chi-Ting Chiang, Wayne Hu, Yin Li, Marilena LoVerde

Cosmic background neutrinos have a large velocity dispersion, which causes the evolution of long-wavelength density perturbations to depend on scale. This scale-dependent growth leads to the well-known suppression in the linear theory matter power spectrum that is used to probe neutrino mass. In this paper, we study the impact of long-wavelength density perturbations on small-scale structure formation. By performing separate universe simulations where the long-wavelength mode is absorbed into the local expansion, we measure the responses of the cold dark matter (CDM) power spectrum and halo mass function, which correspond to the squeezed-limit bispectrum and halo bias. We find that the scale-dependent evolution of the long-wavelength modes causes these quantities to depend on scale and provide simple expressions to model them in terms of scale and the amount of massive neutrinos. Importantly, this scale-dependent bias reduces the suppression in the linear halo power spectrum due to massive neutrinos by 13 and 26% for objects of bias $\bar{b}=2$ and $\bar{b} \gg1$, respectively. We demonstrate with high statistical significance that the scale-dependent halo bias ${\it cannot}$ be modeled by the CDM and neutrino density transfer functions at the time when the halos are identified. This reinforces the importance of the temporal nonlocality of structure formation, especially when the growth is scale dependent.

#### A Bayesian analysis of inflationary primordial spectrum models using Planck data.- [PDF] - [Article]

##### Simony Santos da Costa, Micol Benetti, Jailson Alcaniz

The current available CMB data show an anomalously low value of the CMB temperature fluctuations at large angular scales (l < 40). This lack of power is not explained by the minimal LCDM model, and one of the possible mechanisms explored in the literature to address this problem is the presence of features in the primordial power spectrum (PPS) motivated by the early universe physics. In this paper, we analyse a set of cutoff inflationary PPS models using a Bayesian model comparison approach in light of the latest Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from the Planck Collaboration. Our results show that the standard power-law parameterisation is preferred over all models considered in the analysis, which motivates the search for alternative explanations for the observed lack of power in the CMB anisotropy spectrum.

#### Landscaping the Strong CP Problem.- [PDF] - [Article]

##### Nemanja Kaloper, John Terning

One often hears that the strong CP problem is {\em the} one problem which cannot be solved by anthropic reasoning. We argue that this is not so. Due to nonperturbative dynamics, states with a different CP violating paramenter $\theta$ acquire different vacuum energies after the QCD phase transition. These add to the total variation of the cosmological constant in the putative landscape of Universes. An interesting possibility arises when the cosmological constant is mostly cancelled by the membrane nucleation mechanism. If the step size in the resulting discretuum of cosmological constants, $\Delta \Lambda$, is in the interval $({\rm meV})^4 < \Delta \Lambda < (100 \, {\rm MeV})^4$, the cancellation of vacuum energy can be assisted by the scanning of $\theta$. For $({\rm meV})^4 < \Delta \Lambda < ({\rm keV})^4$ this yields $\theta < 10^{-10}$, meeting the observational limits. This scenario opens up 24 orders of magnitude of acceptable parameter space for $\Delta \Lambda$ compared membrane nucleation acting alone. In such a Universe one does not need a light axion to solve the strong CP problem.

#### Too hot to handle? Analytic solutions for massive neutrino or warm dark matter cosmologies.- [PDF] - [Article]

##### Zachary Slepian, Stephen KN Portillo

We obtain novel closed form solutions to the Friedmann equation for cosmological models containing a component whose equation of state is that of radiation $(w=1/3)$ at early times and that of cold pressureless matter $(w=0)$ at late times. The equation of state smoothly transitions from the early to late-time behavior and exactly describes the evolution of a species with a Dirac Delta function distribution in momentum magnitudes $|\vec{p}_0|$ (i.e. all particles have the same $|\vec{p}_0|$). Such a component, here termed "hot matter", is an approximate model for both neutrinos and warm dark matter. We consider it alone and in combination with cold matter and with radiation, also obtaining closed-form solutions for the growth of super-horizon perturbations in each case. The idealized model recovers $t(a)$ to better than $1.5\%$ accuracy for all $a$ relative to a Fermi-Dirac distribution (as describes neutrinos). We conclude by adding the second moment of the distribution to our exact solution and then generalizing to include all moments of an arbitrary momentum distribution in a closed form solution.

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#### Symmetry and Emergence.- [PDF] - [Article]

##### Edward Witten

I discuss gauge and global symmetries in particle physics, condensed matter physics, and quantum gravity. In a modern understanding, global symmetries are approximate and gauge symmetries may be emergent. (Based on a lecture at the April, 2016 meeting of the American Physical Society in Salt Lake City, Utah.)

#### Jarzynski Equality for Driven Quantum Field Theories.- [PDF] - [Article]

##### Anthony Bartolotta, Sebastian Deffner

The fluctuation theorems, and in particular, the Jarzynski equality, are the most important pillars of modern non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We extend the quantum Jarzynski equality together with the Two-Time Measurement Formalism to their ultimate range of validity -- to quantum field theories. To this end, we focus on a time-dependent version of scalar phi-four. We find closed form expressions for the resulting work distribution function, and we find that they are proper physical observables of the quantum field theory. Also, we show explicitly that the Jarzynski equality and Crooks fluctuation theorems hold at one-loop order independent of the renormalization scale. As a numerical case study, we compute the work distributions for an infinitely smooth protocol in the ultra-relativistic regime. In this case, it is found that work done through processes with pair creation is the dominant contribution.

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